Instructions

Vite VM retains semantics of most EVM instructions. However, since Vite adopts different ledger structure and transaction definition that are different from Ethereum, some EVM instructions need to be redefined, such as those to query block information.

The instruction set in Vite VM is as follows:

0s: Stop and Arithmetic Operations

Opcode Mnemonic POP PUSH Description Differential with EVM
0x00 STOP 0 0 Halt execution Same semantics
0x01 ADD 2 1 Add two operands Same semantics
0x02 MUL 2 1 Multiply two operands Same semantics
0x03 SUB 2 1 Subtract two operands Same semantics
0x04 DIV 2 1 Integer division operation. If the divisor is 0 then returns 0 Same semantics
0x05 SDIV 2 1 Signed integer division operation Same semantics
0x06 MOD 2 1 Modulo remainder operation Same semantics
0x07 SMOD 2 1 Signed modulo remainder operation Same semantics
0x08 ADDMOD 3 1 Modulo addition operation. Add the former two operands and modulo 3rd one Same semantics
0x09 MULMOD 3 1 Modulo multiplication operation. Multiply the former two operands and modulo 3rd one Same semantics
0x0A EXP 2 1 Exponential operation Same semantics
0x0B SIGNEXTEND 2 1 Extend length of two’s complement signed integer Same semantics

10s: Comparison and Bitwise Logic Operations

Opcode Mnemonic POP PUSH Description Differential with EVM
0x10 LT 2 1 Less-than comparison Same semantics
0x11 GT 2 1 Greater-than comparison Same semantics
0x12 SLT 2 1 Signed less-than comparison Same semantics
0x13 SGT 2 1 Signed greater-than comparison Same semantics
0x14 EQ 2 1 Equality comparison Same semantics
0x15 ISZERO 1 1 Zero or not Same semantics
0x16 AND 2 1 Bitwise AND operation Same semantics
0x17 OR 2 1 Bitwise OR operation Same semantics
0x18 XOR 2 1 Bitwise XOR operation Same semantics
0x19 NOT 1 1 Bitwise NOT operation Same semantics
0x1A BYTE 2 1 Retrieve single byte from 2nd operand Same semantics
0x1B SHL 2 1 Shift left Same semantics
0x1C SHR 2 1 Shift right Same semantics
0x1D SAR 2 1 Arithmetic shift right Same semantics

20s: SHA3 Instruction Set

Opcode Mnemonic POP PUSH Description Differential with EVM
0x21 BLAKE2B 2 1 Compute Blake2b hash Blake2b is the hash algorithm used in Vite. SHA3 is not provided

30s: Environmental Information

Opcode Mnemonic POP PUSH Description Differential with EVM
0x30 ADDRESS 0 1 Get address of currently executing account Same semantics
0x31 BALANCE 1 1 Get specific token's balance of current account Add token id as operand. This instruction should not be used to obtain balance of any other account
0x32 ORIGIN - - Get account address from which the execution is originated Not provided, Vite doesn't maintain casual relationship between inner Tx and user Tx
0x33 CALLER 0 1 Get caller address which is directly responsible for this execution Same semantics
0x34 CALLVALUE 0 1 Get transfer amount of called transaction Same semantics
0x35 CALLDATALOAD 1 1 Get input data of current call Same semantics
0x36 CALLDATASIZE 0 1 Get size of input data in current call Same semantics
0x37 CALLDATACOPY 3 0 Copy input data in current call to memory Same semantics
0x38 CODESIZE 0 1 Get size of code running in current environment Same semantics
0x39 CODECOPY 3 0 Copy code running in current environment to memory Same semantics
0x3A GASPRICE - - - Not provided, Vite doesn't charge transaction fee
0x3B EXTCODESIZE 1 1 Get size of an account’s code Currently not provided
0x3C EXTCODECOPY 4 0 Copy a specific account’s code to memory Currently not provided
0x3D RETURNDATASIZE 0 1 Get size of output data from the previous call Same semantics
0x3E RETURNDATACOPY 3 0 Copy output data from the previous call to memory Same semantics
0x3F EXTCODEHASH 1 1 Get the hash of an account’s code Currently not provided

40s: Block Information

Opcode Mnemonic POP PUSH Description Differential with EVM
0x40 BLOCKHASH - - Get the hash of one block Not provided
0x41 COINBASE - - Get the block's beneficiary address Not provided
0x42 TIMESTAMP 0 1 Get the block’s timestamp Different semantics. Return latest snapshot block timestamp
0x43 HEIGHT 0 1 Get the block’s number Different semantics. Return latest snapshot block height
0x44 DIFFICULTY - - Get the block’s difficulty Not provided
0x45 GASLIMIT - - Get the block’s gas limit Not provided
0x46 TOKENID 0 1 Get Tx's transfer token id Additional
0x47 ACCOUNTHEIGHT 0 1 Get account block height Additional
0x48 PREVHASH 0 1 Get the hash of previous account block Additional
0x49 FROMHASH 0 1 Get the hash of request Tx Additional
0x4A SEED 0 1 Get random seed Additional

50s: Stack, Memory, Storage and Flow Operations

Opcode Mnemonic POP PUSH Description Differential with EVM
0x50 POP 1 0 Remove item from stack Same semantics
0x51 MLOAD 1 1 Load word from memory Same semantics
0x52 MSTORE 2 0 Save word to memory Same semantics
0x53 MSTORE8 2 0 Save byte to memory Same semantics
0x54 SLOAD 1 1 Load word from storage Same semantics
0x55 SSTORE 2 0 Save word to storage Same semantics
0x56 JUMP 1 0 Alter the program counter Same semantics
0x57 JUMPI 2 0 Conditionally alter the program counter Same semantics
0x58 PC 0 1 Get the value of the program counter Same semantics
0x59 MSIZE 0 1 Get the size of active memory in bytes Same semantics
0x5A GAS - - Get the amount of available gas Not provided
0x5B JUMPDEST 0 0 Mark a valid destination for jump instructions Same semantics

60s & 70s: Push Operations

Opcode Mnemonic POP PUSH Description Differential with EVM
0x60 PUSH1 0 1 Place 1 byte item on stack Same semantics
0x61 PUSH2 0 1 Place 2-byte item on stack Same semantics
... ... ... ... ... ...
0x7F PUSH32 0 1 Place 32-byte (full word) item on stack Same semantics

80s: Duplication Operations

Opcode Mnemonic POP PUSH Description Differential with EVM
0x80 DUP1 1 2 Duplicate 1st stack item Same semantics
0x81 DUP2 2 3 Duplicate 2nd stack item Same semantics
... ... ... ... ... ...
0x8F DUP16 16 17 Duplicate 2nd stack item Same semantics

90s: Exchange Operations

Opcode Mnemonic POP PUSH Description Differential with EVM
0x90 SWAP1 2 2 Exchange 1st and 2nd stack items Same semantics
0x91 SWAP2 3 3 Exchange 1st and 3rd stack items Same semantics
... ... ... ... ... ...
0x9F SWAP16 17 17 Exchange 1st and 17th stack items Same semantics

a0s: Logging Operations

Opcode Mnemonic POP PUSH Description Differential with EVM
0xA0 LOG0 2 0 Append log record with no topics Same semantics
0xA1 LOG1 3 0 Append log record with one topic Same semantics
... ... ... ... ... ...
0xA4 LOG4 6 0 Append log record with four topics Same semantics

f0s: System Operations

Opcode Mnemonic POP PUSH Description Differential with EVM
0xF0 CREATE - - Create a new contract Not provided
0xF1 CALL 5 0 Call another contract Call another contract asynchronously with no return value
0xF2 CALLCODE - - Change current account's status with calling an alternative contract’s code Not provided
0xF3 RETURN 2 0 Halt execution and return output data Same semantics
0xF4 DELEGATECALL 6 1 Call another contract's code, change contract and current account's status but persisting the original transaction info Not provided
0xFA STATICCALL - - Call another contract, not allowed to change the status Not provided
0xFD REVERT 2 0 Halt execution, recover status and return output data Same semantics
0xFF SELFDESTRUCT 1 0 Halt execution, set contract status as later deletion and return all of the balances Not provided